The following studies are independent projects and papers that contribute empirical data to our body of knowledge on concepts related to non-monogamous relationships.


Adam, B. D. (2006). Relationship innovation in male couples. Sexualities, 9(1), 5–26.

Anderson,  E. (2010). ‘‘At least with cheating there is an attempt at monogamy’’: Cheating and monogamism among undergraduate heterosexual men. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships27.

Ashbee, E. (2007). Polyamory, social conservatism and the same-sex marriage debate in the US. Politics, 27(2), 101–107.

Aviram, H. (2008). Make love, not law: Perceptions of the marriage equality struggle among polyamorous activists. Journal of Bisexuality, 7(3-4), 261–286.

Barker, M., & Langdridge, D. (2010). Whatever happened to non-monogamies? Critical reflections on recent research and theory. Sexualities, 13(6), 748-772.

Barker, M. (2005). This is my partner and this is my … partner’s partner: Constructing a polyamorous identity in a monogamous world. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 18, 75-88.

Bell, D. (2006). Bodies, technologies, spaces: On ‘dogging’. Sexualities, 9(4), 387-407.

Berry, M. D., & Barker, M. (2014). Extraordinary interventions for extraordinary clients: Existential sex therapy and open non-monogamy. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29(1), 21-30. Full text (open source only)

Bettinger, M. (2005). Polyamory and gay men: A family systems approach. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1(1), 97-116.

Bisson, M. a, & Levine, T. R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(1), 66–73.

Black, D. M. (2006). Beyond Child Bride Polygamy: Polyamory, Unique Familial Construction. Journal of Law and Family Studies, 8, 497-508.

Bonello, C. (2009). Gay monogamy and extra-dyadic sex: a critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature. Counselling Psychology Review, 24(3 & 4), 51-65.

Coelho, T. (2011). Hearts, groins and the intricacies of gay male open relationships: Sexual desire and liberation revisited. Sexualities, 14(6), 653-668.

Conley, T.D., Moors, A.C., Ziegler, A., & Karathanasis, C. (2012). Unfaithful individuals are less likely to practice safer sex than openly nonmonogamous individuals. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9, 1559–1565.

Conley, T. D., Zeigler, A., Moors, A. C., Matsick, J. L., & Valentine, B. (2012). A Critical Examination of Popular Assumptions About the Benefits and Outcomes of Monogamous Relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17(2), 124-141.

Deri, J. (2015). Love’s Refraction: Jealousy and Compersion in Queer Women’s Polyamorous Relationships. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.

De Visser, R. & McDonald, D. (2007). Swings and roundabouts: Management of jealousy in heterosexual ‘swinging’ couples. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46 (2), 459-476.

Dominus, Susan. (2017, May 5). Is an Open Marriage a Happier Marriage? New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from

Emens, E. F. (2004). Monogamy’s law: Compulsory monogamy and polyamorous existence. New York University Review of Law and Social Change, 29, 277-376.

Fernandes, E. (2009). The Swinging Paradigm: An Evaluation of the Marital and Sexual Satisfaction of Swingers (Doctoral Dissertation). Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 12.

Finn, M. & Malson, H. (2008). Speaking of home truth: (Re)productions of dyadic commitment in non-monogamous relationships. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(3), 519-533.

Ho, P. S. Y. (2006). The (charmed). circle game: reflections on sexual hierarchy through multiple sexual relationships. Sexualities, 9(5), 547-564.

Jozifkova, E. & Konvicka, M. (2009). Sexual arousal by higher- and lower-ranking partner: Manifestation of a mating strategy?.  Journal of Sexual Medicine,  6(12), 3327-3334.

Johnston, C., & R. Deisher. (1973).  Contemporary communal child rearing: a first analysis. Pediatrics, 52(3), 319-326.

Jordan, L. S., Grogan, C., Muruthi, B., & Bermúdez, J. M. (2016). Polyamory: Experiences of Power from Without, from Within, and in Between. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 16(1), 1-19.

Kassoff, E. (1989). Nonmonogamy in the lesbian community. Women and Therapy, 8(12), 167-182.

Klesse, C. (2005). Bisexual Women, Non-Monogamy and Differentialist Anti-Promiscuity Discourses. Sexualities, 8(4),  445-464.

Klesse, C. (2006). Polyamory and its ‘Others’: Contesting the Terms of Non-Monogamy. Sexualities9(5), 565-583.

LaSala, M. (2005). Monogamy of the heart: A qualitative study of extradyadic sex among gay male couples. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 17(3), 1–24.

LaSala, M. (2004). Extradyadic sex and gay male couples: Comparing monogamous and nonmonogamous relationships. Families in Society, 85(3), 405–412.

Lehmiller, J. L. (2009). Secret romantic relationships: Consequences for personal and relational well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(11), 452-1466.

Lenius, S. (2004). Bisexual People in a Pansexual Community. Journal of Bisexuality, 1(4), 69-78.

Messerschmidt, J. W., Connell, R., Messner, M. A., & Martin, P. Y. (Eds.). (2018). Gender Reckonings: New Social Theory and Research. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Moors, A. C., Conley, T. D., Edelstein, R. S., & Chopik, W. J. (2015). Attached to monogamy? Avoidance predicts willingness to engage (but not actual engagement) in consensual non-monogamy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32(2), 222-240. Full text

Morrison, T. G., Beaulieu, D., Brockman, M., & Beaglaoich, C. Ó. (2011). A comparison of polyamorous and monoamorous persons: are there differences in indices of relationship well-being and sociosexuality? Psychology & Sexuality, 4(1), 75-91.

Noël , M., J. (2006). Progressive Polyamory: Considering Issues of Diversity. Sexualities, 9(5), 602-620.

Overall, C. (1998). Monogamy, Nonmonogamy, and Identity. Hypatia: Indiana University Press Journals, 13, 1-17.

Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. (2010). Border sexualities, border families in schools. Rowman & Littlefield.

Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. (2006).  Polyparents Having Children, Raising Children, Schooling Children.  Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 7(1), 48-53.

Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. & Lubowitz, S. (2003). Outside Belonging: Multi-Sexual Relationships as Border Existence. Journal of Bisexuality, 3 (1), 53-85.

Rambukkana, N. (2015). Fraught intimacies: Non/monogamy in the public sphere. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

Ritchie, A., & Barker, M. (2006). ‘There Aren’t Words for What We Do or How We Feel So We Have To Make Them Up’: Constructing Polyamorous Languages in a Culture of Compulsory Monogamy.  Sexualities, 9(5), 584-601.

Robinson, M. (2013). Polyamory and Monogamy as Strategic Identities. Journal of Bisexuality, 13(1), 21-38.

Robinson, V. (1997). My baby just cares for me: feminism, heterosexuality and non-monogamy. Journal of Gender Studies, 6(4), 143-158.

Rubel, A. N., & Bogaert, A. F. (2015). Consensual nonmonogamy: Psychological well-being and relationship quality correlates. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(9), 961-982. Full text

Rubin, A., & Adams, J. R. (1986). Outcomes of sexually open marriages. The Journal of Sex Research, 22(3), 311-319.

Rubin, R. (2001). Alternative lifestyles revisited, or whatever happened to swingers, group marriages, and communes? Journal of Family Issues, 22, 711-727.

Salsburg, Sheldon (1973). Is group marriage viable?  Journal of Sex Research 9(4), 325-333.

Schippers, Mimi. (2017). Beyond Monogamy: Polyamory and the Future of Polyqueer Sexualities. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Sheff, E.  (2005). Polyamorous Women, Sexual Subjectivity and Power. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography34(3), 251-283.

Sheff, E. (2005). Poly-hegemonic masculinities. Sexualities, 9(5), 621-642.

Sheff, E. (2011). Polyamorous Families, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Slippery Slope. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 40, (5), 487-520.

Shernoff, M. (2006). Negotiated non-monogamy and male couples. Family Process, 45(4), 407-418.

Strassberg, M. I. (2003). The challenge of post-modern polygamy: Considering polyamory. Capital University Law Review, 439, 549-550.

Tweedy, A. E. (2011). Polyamory as a Sexual Orientation. University of Cincinnati Law Review, Vol. 79, pp. 1461.

Worth, H., Reid, A. & McMillan, H. (2002). Somewhere over the rainbow: Love, trust and monogamy in gay relationships. Journal of Sociology, 38(3), 237–253.

Wossick-Correa, K. (2010). Agreements, rules and agentic fidelity in polyamorous relationships. Psychology & Sexuality, 1(1), 44-61.

Zambrano, M. (1999). Paradigms of Polyamory. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 3(1-2), 151-155.